What is Anxiety?
The meaning of the word anxiety is a feeling of worry,
nervousness or unease about situation or event with unexpected, uncertain
The feeling of anxiety is the body natural response to
danger. When anxiety is experienced in short term it can be appropriate and
even normal and, in some situations, even vital for increasing motivation and
The state of anxiety can be characterized by unpleasant
inner turmoil, disturbed cognition often accompanied by nervous, avoidant
behaviour, somatic complains and rumination. It can be related to a particular
change in the person’s life that might have unknown outcome. In that respect
experiencing anxiety is natural.
However, if this state persist for longer period and it is
attached to particular experience, situation or trigger we may identify it as a
trait. Once the anxiety state begins to prevent the individual of living
fulfilling life and it appears to hinder one’s potential it might have
developed into Anxiety Disorder.
Anxiety Disorders are category of mental disorders that
share features of excessive feelings of anxiety and fear and related
behavioural disturbances and physical symptoms. Fear is the psychological
response to real or perceived immediate threat, whereas anxiety is a worry, anticipation
or expectation of future, sometimes unidentifiable, threat.
Types of Anxiety
The Anxiety Disorders differ from one another in the types
of objects, situations or experiences that can induce fear and anxiety
accompanied with the specific avoidance behaviours and disturbed cognition.
Even though they tend to co-exist with each other and in some cases share
similar symptoms, they still can be differentiated by more detailed and
particular examination of the types of situations that are feared or avoided,
the physical symptoms and the associated content of thoughts and beliefs.
Usually symptoms should be present for 6 months in adults
and 1 month in children for disorder to be diagnosed.
Disorder – in most cases offset is in early childhood and rarely persists
in adulthood. It is characterised by intense fear and anxiety about separation
from attachment figures, mostly parents and carers; persistent fear of harm
coming to attachment figures; persistent fear of harm coming to the individual
that may result in his/her separation from the significant figure; nightmares
involving separation; physical symptoms of distress; inability and refusal to
be separated from attachment figures, sleep away or sleep without the
Selective Mutism– marked by consistent failure to speak in social settings or situations where
it is expected to speak, despite the fact that the individual is able to speak
in other situations; the duration of disturbance is at least one month and not
related to developmental difficulties or other medical condition. The offset is
mainly in childhood.
Specific Phobia –
fear and anxiety about specific object or situation such as: heights, flying,
water, insects, animals, medical procedure, injections, blood, needles, etc.
Usually the object or situation are avoided at any cost.
Disorder – marked by severe anxiety about social situation where the
individual can be exposed to scrutiny by others; acute anxiety of performing
social interactions such as having conversation, eating, drinking, talking,
giving a speech/presentation or performing; it is accompanied by particular
cognitive distortions and self-defeating beliefs; avoidant behaviours that
result in distress and impairment in social, professional, occupational or
other important areas of life.
Panic Disorder – characterised
by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks that can reach a pick within minutes
and can occur from either calm or anxious state; manifestation of physical and
cognitive symptoms such as palpitation, shaking or trembling, sweating,
hyperventilation, feelings of chocking, chest pain, nausea, feeling dizzy or
light – headed, numbness or tingling, cold or hot flushes, feeling unreal,
detachment from oneself, intense fear of having heart attack or dying, fear of
losing control or going crazy. Marked by intense fear of the panic attack’s reoccurring
that results in significant psychological distress.
intense anxiety and discomfort of being in situations where the individual
fears that escape or way out might be difficult or not possible; avoidance of
situations such as: using public transport, being in open or enclosed spaces,
crowds, being alone outside home; marked with out of proportion fear and
anxiety to the actual danger posed; imagining catastrophizing scenarios.
Disorder(GAD)– excessive worry
or apprehensive expectations about number of events or situations of everyday
life occurring most days; heightened tension; physical and cognitive symptoms
such as: dizziness, tiredness, sleep disturbances, muscle tension,
irritability, feeling ‘on edge’, losing concentration or mind going blank,
headaches, feeling sick, stomach ache, pins and needles, palpitation and
Disorder (OCD) – marked by the presence of obsessions, compulsions or both.
Obsessions are persistent and recurrent thoughts, urges or images that are
unpleasant and unwanted, causing immense distress and anxiety. The attempt to
neutralize these intrusive thoughts, urges or images leads to the individual to
either use another thought or image or to perform particular action. The
repetitive, ritual like behaviours (putting everything in order, colour
coordinating, checking, counting steps, hand washing, structuring activities by
particular time of the day, etc.) or mental acts (counting, repeating words,
praying, etc.) are called compulsions. The aim of the compulsion is to prevent
or reduce the overwhelming feeling of anxiety generated by the obsession.
Disorder (BDD)– characterised by intense preoccupation and worry about
one’s physical appearance and having a distorted view of perceived defects or
flaws that are not apparent to others; the individual performs compulsive
behaviours (excessive grooming, mirror gazing, , excessive dieting or
exercising, undergoing plastic surgery in attempt to ‘fix’ the perceived flaw,
camouflaging tactics) or compulsive mental acts (seeking reassurance, comparing
features to others, believing others will see them as vain or self-obsessed).
– marked by obvious difficulty to discard, dispose or part with possessions
regardless their value; strong need to save the possession in order to relieve
or avoid the distress associated with discarding or parting with them;
accumulation of possession leads to clutter and congestions to living areas
compromising the safety, comfort and health of the individual and family
members; inability to control the compulsion of accumulating possessions.
(Hair-Pulling Disorder) – compulsive pulling out of one’s hair resulting in
significant hair loss; various unsuccessful attempts to cease the pulling out
hair behaviour; significant impairment in every area of the individual’s life
due to the distress and the visible hair loss; the hair pulling can be
accompanied by different sets of ritual like behaviours involving hair.
or Skin-Picking Disorder) – characterised by repeating, uncontrollable compulsion
to pick one’s skin that results in visible, sometimes significant, tissue
damage; the compulsion is acquired in attempt to relieve psychological distress
or tension and can begin automatically; repeated attempts to cease the
behaviour leading to even more distress for the individual.
Disorder (PTSD)– occurs after directly experiencing or witnessing very
traumatic incident; it can happen at any stage of human life leaving the
individual having to deal with extensive and complex range of psychological and
behavioural symptoms that have adverse effect on one’s life. This disorder can
be difficult to diagnose especially if trauma has occurred in early childhood.
Events associated with the onset of PTSD can be: sexual, psychological or
physical abuse, rape, neglect, loss of significant others, war-time experience,
traffic collision, assault, domestic violence. The individual may experience
symptoms such as: nightmares or re-living the event; flash-backs of the event;
depersonalization; detachment; derealisation; anxiety; depression; acute
stress; insomnia; avoidant behaviours; change in how the person feels and
think; self-harm or onset of addiction and various physiological symptoms.
Acute Stress Disorder
– marked by exposure to, direct involvement, learning or witnessing threatening
or traumatic event resulting in negative mood, dissociation, avoidant
behaviours, depressing dreams, intense and prolonged psychological distress,
sleep disturbance and various physical symptoms. Acute Stress Disorder is
diagnosed if the symptoms after the exposure occur within one month of the
exposure and are dealt within that one month period. If the symptoms persist
after the initial one month period the diagnosis is changed to PTSD.
– characterised by the development of psychological, emotional and behavioural
symptoms in response of particular, identifiable, single or multiple
stressor(s); the distress appears to be out of proportion and longevity to the
intensity and severity of the stressor(s); symptoms occurring within three
months of the onset of the stressor(s). The stressor(s) event(s) can be:
marital, romantic or sexual problems, work, professional or business related
crisis, relationship issues, natural disaster, loss or bereavement, change of
environment or life circumstances.
The sessions are held in Office 18 at the Central Chambers, 77-78 Westborough Scarborough YO11 1TP, just opposite Scarborough Train Station within 3 minutes walking distance.
To book your Assessment Consultation please call 07971799598.